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Monday, October 10, 2016

FUNGSI DAN PERAN HUMAS PERGURUAN TINGGI

Humas pada prinsipnya sebagai suatu fungsi manajemen, komunikasi dua arah antara organisasi dengan publik secara timbal balik dalam menumbuhkan good will (kemauan baik), understanding (saling pengertian), simpati, dukungan, dan kerjasama baik internal maupun eksternal dari lembaga. Edwin Emery (Rahmadi, 1994) menyebut fungsi humas sebagai upaya terencana dan terorganisasi dari sebuah lembaga untuk menciptakan hubungan–hubungan yang saling bermanfaat dengan berbagai publiknya.
Sedangkan yang menjadi sasaran akhir humas adalah: pertama, untuk memperoleh dan menumbuhkan good will (kemauan baik), understanding (saling pengertian), simpati dan dukungan terhadap organisasi yang diwakilinya; kedua, menetralisasikan sikap dan pendapat yang tidak menguntungkan organisasi.
Fungsi humas tidak dapat dipisahkan dari kegiatan manajemen lembaga perguruan tinggi karena secara struktural humas merupakan bagian dari perguruan tinggi. Fungsi humas perguruan tinggi harus mampu mengidentifikasi dan memetakan sasaran dan stakeholder pendidikan, meliputi mahasiswa, dosen, staf administrasi, alumni, masyarakat, pemerintah, media pers, dan orang tua mahasiswa.
Disamping itu, menurut Nasution (2006 : 29) fungsi penting lainnya yang harus dilakukan humas perguruan tinggi ada dua hal, yakni :
1. Fungsi membangun (konstruktif), dalam hal ini perguruan tinggi dapat membagi pada aspek keilmuan sebagai alat memecahkan masalah yang dapat diterima masyarakat, dan kebijakan perguruan tinggi bisa diterima segenap civitas akademika.
2.    Fungsi korektif, dimana humas harus mampu menetralisir setiap opini negatif yang berkembang di masyarakat internal maupun eksternal. Fungsi korektif ini berusaha agar perguruan tinggi tidak melakukan sesuatu yang bisa merugikan organisasi. Selain itu juga memberikan input yang diperlukan dalam mengambil kebijakan.
Dozier dan Broom (dalam Ruslan, 2008), menyebutkan empat kategori peran humas, yaitu :
1.    Penasehat ahli (expert prescriber)
Seorang praktisi humas yang berpengalaman dan memiliki tingkat kemampuan yang tinggi dapat membantu mencarikan solusi dari masalah hubungan dengan publiknya (public relationship).
2.    Fasilitator komunikasi (communication facilitator)
Dalam hal ini, praktisi humas bertindak sebagai komunikator atau mediator untuk membantu pihak manajemen dalam hal untuk mendengar apa yang diinginkan dan diharapkan oleh publiknya. Dipihak lain, dia juga dituntut mampu menjelaskan kembali keinginan, kebijakan dan harapan organisasi kepada publiknya, sehingga dengan komunikasi timbal balik tersebut dapat tercipta saling pengertian, mempercayai, menghargai, mendukung dan toleransi yang baik dari kedua belah pihak.
3.   Fasilitator pemecahan masalah (problem solving proses facilitator)
Peranan praktisi humas dalam proses pemecahan persoalan sebagai bagian dari tim manajemen. Hal ini dimaksudkan untuk membantu pimpinan lembaga sebagai penasehat (adviser) hingga mengambil tindakan eksekusi (keputusan) dalam mengatasi persoalan atau krisis yang dihadapi secara rasional dan profesional.
4.   Teknisi komunikasi (communication technician)
Sistem komunikasi dalam organisasi tergantung dari masing-masing bagian atau tingkatan (level), yaitu secara teknis komunikasi baik arus maupun media komunikasi yang dipergunakan ditingkat pimpinan dengan bawahan akan berbeda dari bawahan ke tingkat atasan.
Menurut Nasution (2006 : 30), ada tiga alasan yang mendasari pentingnya peran humas di perguruan tinggi:
1. Pengelolaan perguruan tinggi, khususnya perguruan tinggi negeri, pada masa sekarang dan mendatang semakin otonom, sehingga pimpinan sering menghasilkan kebijakan yang terkait dengan perguruan tingginya. Karena itu, dibutuhkan suatu bagian dalam hal ini bagian humas yang secara terus-menerus dan terencana mensosialisasikan, memberikan informasi kebijakan tersebut kepada masyarakat di dalam perguruan tinggi (mahasiswa, dosen, Staf Humas) dan masyarakat di luar perguruan tinggi (orang tua mahasiswa, alumni, lembaga/instansi lain).
2. Persaingan yang sehat dan dinamis antar sesama perguruan tinggi di dalam negeri dan internasional dalam merebut minat calon mahasiswa, orang tua calom mahasiswa, dan masyarakat luas, membuat pimpinan perguruan tinggi dituntut menyiapkan suatu bagian dalam hal ini humas untuk mengelola informasi yang jelas dan memberikan kesan citra positif.
3. Perkembangan media massa cetak dan elektronik di daerah semakin meningkat, misalnya surat kabar, radio swasta, dan televisi lokal di daerah, yang sudah pasti selalu mencari informasi yang aktual di perguruan tinggi. Oleh sebab itu dibutuhkan bagian dalam hal ini bagian humas untuk membina hubungan yang harmonis dengan pihak pers tersebut. Tujuannya agar informasi atau berita-berita yang positif dan membangun tentang perguruan tingginya selalu menjadi bahan informasi pers tersebut.
Sedangkan menurut Djanaid (2005 : 13) peran humas perguruan tinggi merupakan kunci bagi suatu lembaga perguruan tinggi, yaitu :
1.  Humas membantu mencari solusi terhadap masalah antara perguruan tinggi dengan masyarakat.
2. Humas bertindak sebagai mediator untuk membantu pimpinan perguruan tinggi mendengarkan saran, kritikan, dan harapan masyarakat. Dan sebaliknya humas juga harus mampu menjelaskan informasi dan kebijakan dari pimpinan perguruan tinggi.
3.  Humas membantu mengatasi permasalahan yang terjadi pada perguruan tinggi dengan memberikan masukan pada pimpinan.

Wednesday, October 05, 2016

PROKARYOTIC CELL DIVISION

Prokaryotes, such as bacteria, propagate by binary fission. For unicellular organisms, cell division is the only method to produce new individuals. In both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, the outcome of cell reproduction is a pair of daughter cells that are genetically identical to the parent cell. In unicellular organisms, daughter cells are individuals.
To achieve the outcome of cloned offspring, certain steps are essential. The genomic DNA must be replicated and then allocated into the daughter cells; the cytoplasmic contents must also be divided to give both new cells the machinery to sustain life. In bacterial cells, the genome consists of a single, circular DNA chromosome; therefore, the process of cell division is simplified. Karyokinesis is unnecessary because there is no nucleus and thus no need to direct one copy of the multiple chromosomes into each daughter cell. This type of cell division is called binary (prokaryotic) fission.

Binary Fission
Due to the relative simplicity of the prokaryotes, the cell division process, called binary fission, is a less complicated and much more rapid process than cell division in eukaryotes. The single, circular DNA chromosome of bacteria is not enclosed in a nucleus, but instead occupies a specific location, the nucleoid, within the cell Although the DNA of the nucleoid is associated with proteins that aid in packaging the molecule into a compact size, there are no histone proteins and thus no nucleosomes in prokaryotes. The packing proteins of bacteria are, however, related to the cohesin and condensin proteins involved in the chromosome compaction of eukaryotes.
The bacterial chromosome is attached to the plasma membrane at about the midpoint of the cell. The starting point of replication, the origin, is close to the binding site of the chromosome to the plasma membrane (Figure 1). Replication of the DNA is bidirectional, moving away from the origin on both strands of the loop simultaneously. As the new double strands are formed, each origin point moves away from the cell wall attachment toward the opposite ends of the cell. As the cell elongates, the growing membrane aids in the transport of the chromosomes. After the chromosomes have cleared the midpoint of the elongated cell, cytoplasmic separation begins. The formation of a ring composed of repeating units of a protein called FtsZ directs the partition between the nucleoids. Formation of the FtsZ ring triggers the accumulation of other proteins that work together to recruit new membrane and cell wall materials to the site. A septum is formed between the nucleoids, extending gradually from the periphery toward the center of the cell. When the new cell walls are in place, the daughter cells separate.



Figure  1  These images show the steps of  binary  fission  in  prokaryotes.  (credit:   modification   of  work  by “Mcstrother”/Wikimedia Commons)


Mitotic Spindle Apparatus
The precise timing and  formation  of the mitotic spindle  is critical to the success of eukaryotic cell division. Prokaryotic cells, on the other hand, do not undergo karyokinesis and  therefore have  no need for a mitotic spindle. However, the FtsZ protein  that  plays  such a  vital role in prokaryotic  cytokinesis is  structurally and functionally  very  similar  to  tubulin,  the building  block  of the  microtubules that make up  the  mitotic spindle  fibers  that  are necessary for eukaryotes. FtsZ  proteins can form filaments,  rings,  and  other  three- dimensional  structures that resemble the way tubulin forms microtubules, centrioles, and various cytoskeletal components. In addition, both FtsZ and tubulin employ the same energy source, GTP (guanosine triphosphate), to rapidly assemble and disassemble complex  structures.
FtsZ and tubulin are homologous structures derived from common evolutionary origins. In this  example, FtsZ is the ancestor protein to tubulin (a modern protein). While both proteins are found in extant  organisms, tubulin function  has  evolved  and diversified tremendously since  evolving  from its FtsZ  prokaryotic origin. A survey of mitotic assembly components found in present-day unicellular eukaryotes reveals crucial intermediary steps to the complex membrane-enclosed genomes of multicellular eukaryotes (Table 1).

Cell Division Apparatus among Various  Organisms


Structure of
genetic material
Division of nuclear material
Separation of daughter cells
Prokaryotes
There is no nucleus. The single, circular chromosome exists in a region of cytoplasm called the nucleoid.
Occurs through binary fission. As the chromosome is replicated, the two copies move to opposite ends of the cell by an unknown mechanism
FtsZ proteins assemble into a ring that pinches the cell in two.
Some protists
Linear chromosomes exist in the nucleus.
Chromosomes attach to the nuclear envelope, which remains intact. The mitotic spindle  passes through  the envelope and elongates the cell. No centrioles exist.
Microfilaments form a cleavage furrow that pinches the cell in two.
Other protists
Linear chromosomes exist in the nucleus.
A mitotic spindle  forms from the centrioles and passes through  the nuclear membrane, which remains intact. Chromosomes attach to the mitotic spindle,  which separates the chromosomes and elongates the cell.
Microfilaments form a cleavage furrow that pinches the cell in two.
Animal cells
Linear chromosomes exist in the nucleus.
A mitotic spindle  forms from the centrosomes. The nuclear envelope dissolves. Chromosomes attach to the mitotic spindle,  which separates the chromosomes and elongates the cell.

Microfilaments form a cleavage furrow that pinches the cell in two.

Tabel 1.

Thursday, September 29, 2016

CONTROL OF THE CELL CYCLE

The length of the cell cycle is highly variable, even within the cells of a single organism. In humans, the frequency of cell turnover ranges from a few hours in early embryonic development, to an average of two to five days for epithelial cells, and to an entire human lifetime spent in G0 by specialized cells, such as cortical neurons or cardiac muscle cells. There is also variation in the time that a cell spends in each phase of the cell cycle. When fast-dividing mammalian cells are grown in culture (outside the body under optimal growing conditions), the length of the cycle is about 24 hours. In rapidly dividing human cells with a 24-hour cell cycle, the G1 phase lasts approximately nine hours, the S phase lasts 10 hours, the G2 phase lasts about four and one-half hours, and the M phase lasts approximately one-half hour. In early embryos of fruit flies, the cell cycle is completed in about eight minutes. The timing of events in the cell cycle is controlled by mechanisms that are both internal and external to the cell.

Regulation of the Cell Cycle  by External Events
Both the initiation and inhibition of cell division are triggered by events external to the cell when it is about to begin the replication process. An event may be as simple as the death of a nearby cell or as sweeping as the release of growth- promoting hormones, such as human growth hormone (HGH). A lack of HGH can inhibit cell division, resulting in dwarfism, whereas too much HGH can result in gigantism. Crowding of cells can also inhibit cell division. Another factor that can initiate cell division is the size of the cell; as a cell grows, it becomes inefficient due to its decreasing surface-to- volume ratio. The solution to this problem is to divide.
Whatever the source of the message, the cell receives the signal, and a series of events within the cell allows it to proceed into interphase. Moving forward from this initiation point, every parameter required during each cell cycle phase must be met or the cycle cannot progress.

Regulation at Internal Checkpoints
It is essential that the daughter cells produced be exact duplicates of the parent cell. Mistakes in the duplication or distribution of the chromosomes lead to mutations that may be passed forward to every new cell produced from an abnormal cell. To prevent a compromised cell from continuing to divide, there are internal control mechanisms that operate at three main cell cycle checkpoints. A checkpoint is one of several points in the eukaryotic cell cycle at which the progression of a cell to the next stage in the cycle can be halted until conditions are favorable. These checkpoints occur near the end of G1, at the G2/M transition, and during metaphase (Figure 1).


Figure 1 The cell cycle is controlled  at three checkpoints. The  integrity of the DNA is assessed at  the G1 checkpoint. Proper chromosome duplication is assessed at the  G2 checkpoint. Attachment of each kinetochore to a spindle  fiber is assessed at the M checkpoint.

The G1 Checkpoint
The G1 checkpoint determines whether all conditions are favorable for cell division to proceed. The G1 checkpoint, also called the restriction point (in yeast), is a point at which the cell irreversibly commits to the cell division process. External influences, such as growth factors, play a large role in carrying the cell past the G1 checkpoint. In addition to adequate reserves and cell size, there is a check for genomic DNA damage at the G1  checkpoint. A cell that does not meet all the requirements will not be allowed to progress into the S phase. The cell can halt the cycle and attempt to remedy the problematic condition, or the cell can advance into G0 and await further signals when conditions improve.

The G2 Checkpoint
The G2 checkpoint bars entry into the mitotic phase if certain conditions are not met. As at the G1 checkpoint, cell size and protein reserves are assessed. However, the most important role of the Gcheckpoint is to ensure that all of the chromosomes have been replicated and that the replicated DNA is not damaged. If the checkpoint mechanisms detect problems with the DNA, the cell cycle is halted, and the cell attempts to either complete DNA replication or repair the damaged DNA.

The M Checkpoint
The M checkpoint occurs near the end of the metaphase stage of karyokinesis. The M checkpoint is also known as the spindle checkpoint, because it determines whether all the sister chromatids are correctly attached to the spindle microtubules. Because the separation of the sister chromatids during anaphase is an irreversible step, the cycle will not proceed until the kinetochores of each pair of sister chromatids are firmly anchored to at least two spindle fibers arising from opposite poles of the cell.

Regulator Molecules of the Cell Cycle
In addition to the internally controlled checkpoints, there are two groups of intracellular molecules that regulate the cell cycle. These regulatory molecules either promote progress of the cell to the next phase (positive regulation) or halt the cycle (negative regulation). Regulator molecules may act individually, or they can influence the activity or production of other regulatory proteins. Therefore, the failure of a single regulator may have almost no effect on the cell cycle, especially if more than one mechanism controls the same event. Conversely, the effect of a deficient or non-functioning regulator can be wide-ranging and possibly fatal to the cell if multiple processes are affected.

Positive Regulation of the Cell Cycle
Two groups of proteins, called cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), are responsible for the progress of the cell through the various checkpoints. The levels of the four cyclin proteins fluctuate throughout the cell cycle in a predictable pattern (Figure 2). Increases in the concentration of cyclin proteins are triggered by both external and internal signals. After the cell moves to the next stage of the cell cycle, the cyclins that were active in the previous stage are degraded.



Figure  2  The  concentrations of cyclin proteins change throughout the  cell cycle.  There  is a  direct  correlation between cyclin accumulation and  the three  major  cell cycle  checkpoints. Also note  the sharp decline  of cyclin levels following each checkpoint (the  transition  between phases of the  cell cycle),  as cyclin is degraded by cytoplasmic enzymes. (credit: modification of work by "WikiMiMa"/Wikimedia Commons)

Cyclins regulate the cell cycle only when they are tightly bound to Cdks. To be fully active, the Cdk/cyclin complex must also be phosphorylated in specific locations. Like all kinases, Cdks are enzymes (kinases) that phosphorylate other proteins. Phosphorylation activates the protein by changing its shape. The proteins phosphorylated by Cdks are involved in advancing the cell to the next phase. (Figure 3). The levels of Cdk proteins are relatively stable throughout the cell cycle; however, the concentrations of cyclin fluctuate and determine when Cdk/cyclin complexes form. The different cyclins and Cdks bind at specific points in the cell cycle and thus regulate different checkpoints.




Figure 3 Cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) are protein kinases that, when fully activated, can  phosphorylate and thus activate other  proteins that advance the cell cycle past a checkpoint. To become fully activated, a Cdk must  bind to a cyclin protein and then be phosphorylated by another kinase.

Since the cyclic fluctuations of cyclin levels are based on the timing of the cell cycle and not on specific events, regulation of the cell cycle usually occurs by either the Cdk molecules alone or the Cdk/cyclin complexes. Without a specific concentration of fully activated cyclin/Cdk complexes, the cell cycle cannot proceed through the checkpoints.
Although the cyclins are the main regulatory molecules that determine the forward momentum of the cell cycle, there are several other mechanisms that fine-tune the progress of the cycle with negative, rather than positive, effects. These mechanisms essentially block the progression of the cell cycle until problematic conditions are resolved. Molecules that prevent the full activation of Cdks are called Cdk inhibitors. Many of these inhibitor molecules directly or indirectly monitor a particular cell cycle event. The block placed on Cdks by inhibitor molecules will not be removed until the specific event that the inhibitor monitors is completed.

Negative Regulation of the Cell Cycle
The second group of cell cycle regulatory molecules are negative regulators. Negative regulators halt the cell cycle. Remember that in positive regulation, active molecules cause the cycle to progress. The best understood negative regulatory molecules are retinoblastoma protein (Rb), p53, and p21. Retinoblastoma proteins are a group of tumor-suppressor proteins common in many cells. The 53 and 21 designations refer to the functional molecular masses of the proteins (p) in kilodaltons. Much of what is known about cell cycle regulation comes from research conducted with cells that have lost regulatory control. All three of these regulatory proteins were discovered to be damaged or non-functional in cells that had begun to replicate uncontrollably (became cancerous). In each case, the main cause of the unchecked progress through the cell cycle was a faulty copy of the regulatory protein.
Rb, p53, and p21 act primarily at the Gcheckpoint. p53 is a multi-functional protein that has a major impact on the commitment of a cell to division because it acts when there is damaged DNA in cells that are undergoing the preparatory processes during G1. If damaged DNA is detected, p53 halts the cell cycle and recruits enzymes to repair the DNA. If the DNA cannot be repaired, p53 can trigger apoptosis, or cell suicide, to prevent the duplication of damaged chromosomes. As p53 levels rise, the production of p21 is triggered. p21 enforces the halt in the cycle dictated by p53 by binding to and inhibiting the activity of the Cdk/cyclin complexes. As a cell is exposed to more stress, higher levels of p53 and p21 accumulate, making it less likely that the cell will move into the S phase.
Rb exerts its regulatory influence on other positive regulator proteins. Chiefly, Rb monitors cell size. In the active, dephosphorylated state, Rb binds to proteins called transcription factors, most commonly, E2F (Figure 4). Transcription factors “turn on” specific genes, allowing the production of proteins encoded by that gene. When Rb is bound to E2F, production of proteins necessary for the G1/S transition is blocked. As the cell increases in size, Rb is slowly phosphorylated until it becomes inactivated. Rb releases E2F, which can now turn on the gene that produces the transition protein, and this particular block is removed. For the cell to move past each of the checkpoints, all positive regulators must be “turned on,” and all negative regulators must be “turned off.”


Figure 4  Rb halts the cell cycle and releases its hold in response to cell growth.

Rb and  other  proteins that negatively regulate the cell cycle are  sometimes called  tumor suppressors.  Why do you think the name tumor suppressor might be appropriate for these proteins?

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